Research References


Schneider, B., Krajcik, J., Lavonen, J., Salmela‐Aro, K., Broda, M., Spicer, J., ... & Viljaranta, J. (2016). Investigating optimal learning moments in US and Finnish science classes. Journal of Research in Science Teaching, 53(3), 400-421.

Social and Emotional Skills

OECD, Social and Emotional Skills Well-being, connectedness and success, 2020.,%20connectedness%20and%20success.pdf%20(website).pdf

Tang, X., Wang, M. T., Guo, J., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2019). Building grit: The longitudinal pathways between mindset, commitment, grit, and academic outcomes. Journal of youth and adolescence, 48(5), 850-863.

Kashdan, T. B., Disabato, D. J., Goodman, F. R., & McKnight, P. E. (2020). The Five-Dimensional Curiosity Scale Revised (5DCR): Briefer subscales while separating overt and covert social curiosity. Personality and Individual Differences, 157, 109836.


School Wellbeing

Kiuru, Kangas, Wang, Salmela-Aro & Ahonen (2020) Associations between Adolescents’ Interpersonal Relationships, School Well-being, and Academic Achievement during Educational Transitions. Journal of Youth and Adolescence

Tuominen, Niemivrta, Lonka & Salmela-Aro (2020)Motivation across a transition: Changes in achievement goal orientations and academic well-being from elementary to secondary school. Learning and Individual Differences.

Hietajärvi, Lonka, Hakkarainen, Alho & Salmela-Aro (2020) Are Schools Alienating Digitally Engaged Students? Longitudinal Relations between Digital Engagement and School Engagement. Frontline Learning Research.



Upadyaya, K., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2013). Development of school engagement in association with academic success and well-being in varying social contexts: A review of empirical research. European Psychologist, 18(2), 136.

Salmela‐Aro, K., & Upadyaya, K. (2014). School burnout and engagement in the context of demands–resources model. British journal of educational psychology, 84(1), 137-151.

Wang, M. T., Chow, A., Hofkens, T., & Salmela-Aro, K. (2015). The trajectories of student emotional engagement and school burnout with academic and psychological development: Findings from Finnish adolescents. Learning and Instruction, 36, 57-65.

Salmela-Aro, K., & Upadaya, K. (2012). The schoolwork engagement inventory. European Journal of Psychological Assessment.


Supports and Relations

Pianta, R. C., & Hamre, B. K. (2009). Conceptualization, measurement, and improvement of classroom processes: Standardized observation can leverage capacity. Educational researcher, 38(2), 109-119.

Tang, X., Pakarinen, E., Lerkkanen, M. K., Kikas, E., Muotka, J., & Nurmi, J. E. (2017). Validating the early childhood classroom observation measure in first and third grade classrooms. Scandinavian Journal of Educational Research, 61(3), 275-294.

Pianta, R. C., Hamre, B. K., & Allen, J. P. (2012). Teacher-student relationships and engagement: Conceptualizing, measuring, and improving the capacity of classroom interactions. In Handbook of research on student engagement (pp. 365-386). Springer, Boston, MA.



Salmela-Aro, K., Kiuru, N., Leskinen, E., & Nurmi, J. E. (2009). School burnout inventory (SBI) reliability and validity. European journal of psychological assessment, 25(1), 48-57.

Salmela-Aro, K., Upadyaya, K., Hakkarainen, K., Lonka, K., & Alho, K. (2017). The dark side of internet use: two longitudinal studies of excessive internet use, depressive symptoms, school burnout and engagement among Finnish early and late adolescents. Journal of youth and adolescence, 46(2), 343-357.


Measuring Wellbeing

Kylväjä, M., Kupulainen, P, Konu, A. Application of Data Clustering for Automated Feedback Generation about Student Well-Being. EASEAI 2019: Proceedings of the 1st ACM SIGSOFT International Workshop on Education through Advanced Software Engineering and Artificial IntelligenceAugust 2019 (pp21–26).